is one of the very important and useful fields of mathematics. In statistic we study how to do the collection of data, then how to organize, analyze and interpret data. It is simply concerned with all these things and also involves the planning of the collection of data and designing the experiments.
Some people think that statistics is a branch of mathematics while some consider statistics as a mathematical body of science which is used for the collection, organization and analysis and interpretation of the data, some consider it as a medium which is used only for interpretation of data but the reality is that because of its applications and empirical roots, it is now considered as a separate mathematical science and not as a branch of mathematics or science.
Statistics also gives us a tool to predict and forecast or generate graphical models using data and the models of statistics.
The methods of statistics are used for describing or generalizing and summarizing the data Set
, it is known as Descriptive Statistics
. Statistics is very useful in scientific researches.
The statistics is related to Probability Theory
; the main difference is that both the theories works in opposite direction means, both are reverse process of each other. The Probability
theory starts from the given parameters of total population, so that one can deduce the Probabilities
from the given samples whereas the statistics goes in opposite direction.
Now here are some key terms that are used in statistics:
1. Null hypothesis: The statistical information most of the time develops the null hypothesis in that, it uses it as assumption, that the proposed cause which can be anything will never affect the variables which are being measured.
2. Error: While having null hypothesis we can encounter two types of Error:
a. The error where the null hypothesis is rejected and gives a false positive.
b. In other type of error the null hypothesis is not rejected and gives a false negative.
The errors also define the extent to which the individual observations of a given sample is always different from the central value of the sample.
Significance: It is very rare to get an answer in terms of ‘Yes’ or ‘No’ in problems of statistics. The statistical significance is applied to Numbers
and also called as probability of a value which is right and accurate value to reject the null hypothesis, this value is known as ‘p’ value.
If we are using the statistical significance, it does not Mean
that in real world, the overall result of the given problem or question is also significant. For instance the drugs are injurious to health if it is taken in a large amount; while it is beneficial for the patients, if the statistically significant amount of drug is taken.